Google Scholar

Peer Reviewed

  • Maher AR, Apaydin E, Hilton L, Chen C, Troxel WM, Hall O, Azhar GS, Larkin J, Motala A, Hempel S. Sleep Management in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A Systematic Review. Rand Health Quarterly 9 (3). Available from:
  • Shariff A, Azhar GS, Sharma A. Health care sector financing in India [Book Chapter]. Health of the Nation: India Health Report. Oxford University Press. Available from:
  • Micah AE, Cogswell IE, Cunningham B, Ezoe S, Harle AC, Maddison ER, … Azhar GS… Tracking development assistance for health and for COVID-19: a review of development assistance, government, out-of-pocket, and other private spending on health for 204 countries and territories, 1990–2050. The Lancet 398 (10308), 1317-1343. Available from:
  • Maher AR, Apaydin EA, Hilton L, Chen C, Troxel W, Hall O, Azhar GS. Sleep management in posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Medicine 87, 203-219. Available from:
  • Grant S, Azhar GS, Han E, Booth M, Motala A, Larkin J, Hempel S. Clinical interventions for adults with comorbid alcohol use and depressive disorders: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. PLoS medicine 18 (10), e1003822. Available from:
  • Ledesma JR, Ma J, Vongpradith A, Maddison ER, Novotney A, Biehl MH, … Azhar GS… Global, regional, and national sex differences in the global burden of tuberculosis by HIV status, 1990–2019: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 22 (2), 222-241. Available from:
  • Apaydin EA, Richardson AS, Baxi S, Vockley J, Akinniranye O, Ross R, Larkin J, Motala A, Azhar GS, Hempel S. An evidence map of randomised controlled trials evaluating genetic therapies. BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine 26 (4), 194-194. Available from:
  • Meredith LS, Azhar GS, Chang ET, Okunogbe A, Simon A, Han B. Can Using an Intensive Management Program Improve Primary Care Staff Experiences With Caring for High-Risk Patients? Federal Practitioner 38 (2), 68. Available from:
  • Vollset SE, Goren E, Yuan CW, Cao J, Smith AE, Hsiao T, Bisignano C,… Azhar GS… Fertility, mortality, migration, and population scenarios for 195 countries and territories from 2017 to 2100: a forecasting analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. The Lancet 396 (10258), 1285-1306. Available from:
  • Gordon K, Hofman RM, Azhar GS, Ramirez D, Schneider S, Wagner G. Examining Correlates of Pre‐ART and Early ART Adherence to Identify Key Factors Infuencing Adherence Readiness. AIDS and Behavior 25 (1), 113-123. Available from:
  • Maglione MA, Raaen L, Chen C, Azhar GS, Nima S, Shen M, …Effects of Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorder on functional outcomes: a systematic review. Rand Health Quarterly 8 (4). Available from:
  • Cohen CC, Azhar GS, Muggy L. When Is An Outbreak An Outbreak? Using Literature And Discharge Data To Define C. difficile Incidence Changes Referred To As Outbreaks. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2020. Available from:
  • Azhar GS, Schneider S, Hoffman R, Gordon K, Ramirez D, Wagner G. Evaluating Measures of Pre-ART Adherence Readiness Through Associations with ART Adherence in the Early Months of Treatment. AIDS and Behavior 24 (2), 648-654. Available from:
  • Nori-Sarma A, Anderson BG, Rajiva A, Azhar GS, Gupta P, Padnekar M, Peng RD, Son JY, Bell ML. Heat Waves and Mortality in Northwest India. Environmental Research. 2019: 108546. Available from:
  • Richardson AS, Chen C, Sturm R, Azhar GS, Miles J, Larkin J, Motala A, Hempel S. Obesity Prevention Policies and Implications for Energy Balance: A systematic review of the evidence and meta-analysis. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2019 Jul 20. doi: 10.1002/oby.22540. [Epub ahead of print]. Available from:
  • Nori-Sarma A, Benmarhnia T, Rajiva A, Azhar GS, Gupta P, Pednekar M, Bell ML. Advancing our Understanding of Heat Wave Criteria and Associated Health Impacts to Improve Heat Wave Alerts in Developing Country Settings. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019 Jun 13;16(12). pii: E2089. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16122089. Available from:
  • Maglione MA, Raaen L, Chen C, Azhar G, Shahidinia N, Shen M, Maksabedian E, Shanman RM, Newberry S, Hempel S. Effects of medication assisted treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorder on functional outcomes: A systematic review. Journal of substance abuse treatment. 2018 Jun 1;89:28-51. Available from:
  • Meredith LS, Azhar G, Okunogbe A, Canelo IA, Darling JE, Street AE, Yano EM. Primary care providers with more experience and stronger self-efficacy beliefs regarding women veterans screen more frequently for interpersonal violence. Women’s health issues. 2017 Sep 1;27(5):586-91. Available from:
  • Nori-Sarma A, Gurung A, Azhar GS, Rajiva A, Mavalankar D, Sheffield P, Bell ML. Opportunities and Challenges in Public Health Data Collection in Southern Asia: Examples from Western India and Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1106; doi:10.3390/su9071106 (registering DOI). Available from:
  • Azhar GS, Saha S, Ganguly P, Mavalankar D, Madrigano J. Heat wave vulnerability mapping for India. International journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2017. 14 (4), 357. Available from
  • Dutta P, Rajiva A, Andhare D, Azhar GS, Tiwari A, Sheffield P, … Perceived heat stress and health effects on construction workers. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2015. 19 (3), 151. Available from
  • Azhar GS, Mavalankar D, Nori-Sarma A, Rajiva A, Dutta P, Jaiswal A, … Heat-related mortality in India: Excess all-cause mortality associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad heat wave. PloS One, 2014.9(3), e91831 Available from:                             
  • Kakkad K, Barzaga ML, Wallenstein S, Azhar GS, Sheffield PE. Neonates in Ahmedabad, India, during the 2010 heat wave: a climate change adaptation study. Journal of Environmental and Public Health 2014:946875. doi: 10.1155/2014/946875. Epub 2014 Mar 10.Available from:
  • Iyer V, Azhar GS, Choudhury N, Dhruwey VS, Dacombe R, Upadhyay A. Infectious disease burden in Gujarat (2005–2011): comparison of selected infectious disease rates with India. Emerging health threats journal, 2014. Mar 19;7:22838. doi: 10.3402/ehtj.v7.22838. eCollection 2014. Available from:
  • Iyer V, Choudhury N, Azhar GS, Somvanshi B. Drinking Water Quality Surveillance in a Vulnerable Urban Ward of Ahmedabad. Health, 2014. 6 (11), 1165-1171. Available from:
  • Knowlton K, Kulkarni SP, Azhar GS, Mavalankar D, Jaiswal A, Connolly M, … Development and Implementation of South Asia’s First Heat-Health Action Plan in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India). International journal of environmental research and public health, 2014. 11(4), 3473-3492; doi:10.3390/ijerph110403473 Available from:
  • Tran KV, Azhar G S, Nair R, Knowlton K, Jaiswal A, Sheffield P ,Mavalankar D and Hess J. A Cross-sectional, Randomized Cluster Sample Survey of Household Vulnerability to Extreme Heat Among Slum Dwellers in Ahmedabad, India. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2013. 10(6), 2515-2543; doi:10.3390/ijerph10062515. Available from:
  • Azhar GS. DOTS for TB relapse in India: A systematic review. Lung India, 2012. 29 (2), 147-153. Available from:
  • Azhar GS. Future of healthcare in India: lessons from Scandinavia. Global Journal of Medicine and Public Health, 2012. 1 (3), 71-80. Available from:
  • Azhar G S, Azhar AZ, Azhar AS. Overwork among medical residents in India: A resident’s perspective. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 2012. 1(2) 141-143. Available from:;year=2012;volume=1;issue=2;spage=141;epage=143;aulast=Azhar
  • Azhar GS, Amir A, Khalique N, Khan Z. A Study of Determinants of Use of Healthcare Services in India. International Journal of Medicine and Public Health, 2011. 1 (3), 62-66. Available from:
  • Jilani AZ, Azhar GS, Jilani NZ, Siddiqui A. Private providers of Healthcare in India: A policy analysis. The Internet Journal of Third World Medicine, 2009. 8(1)5. Available from:
  • [Few documents / reports are not available in public domain.]

Other Papers


  • Engel CC, McBain RK, McBirney S, Heins SE, Hoch E, Simmons M, Azhar GS…The Effect of Blast-related Burn Injuries from Prolonged Field Care to Rehabilitation and Resilience: A Review of the Scientific Literature. RAND
  • Engel CC, Simmons M, Heins SE, Shen M, GS Azhar, Piquado T. Limb Salvage and Recovery After Severe Blast Injury: Literature Review for the Eighth Department of Defense International State-of-the-Science Meeting on Blast Injury Research. RAND Corporation
  • Azhar GS. Indian Summer: Three Essays on Heatwave Vulnerability, Estimation and Adaptation. PhD Dissertation 2019. Available from:
  • Engel CC, Simmons M, McBain RK, Heins S, Gore K, Lilly S, Shen M, Azhar GS, Zhang L. “Department of Defense Supported Blast Related Brain Health Research: A Review of Work from 2007 through 2017.” PR-4494-OSD. Prepared for the United States Army, Personnel, Training, and Health Program.
  • Richardson A, Apaydin E, Baxi S, Vockley J, Akinniranye O, Ross R, Larkin J, Motala A, Azhar GS, Hempel S. Landscape Review and Evidence Map of Gene Therapy: Chimeric Antigen Receptor-T cell (CAR-T), Autologous Cell, Antisense, RNA Interference (RNAi), Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN), Genetically Modified Oncolytic Herpes Virus. Patient – Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). Available from:
  • McBain RK, Ashwood JS, Eberhart NK, Montemayor CK, Azhar GS. Evaluating Cost Savings associated with Los Angeles County’s Mental Health Full Service Partnerships. Available from:
  • Grant S. Azhar GS, Han E, Booth M, Motala A, Larkin J, Hempel S. Clinical interventions for adults with co-morbid alcohol use and depressive disorders. November 2018. RAND National Security Research Division, PR-3558-OSD. Prepared for the Psychological Health Center of Excellence.
  • Krull H, Armour P, Edwards K, Van-Abel K, Cottrell L, Azhar GS. Interrelationships Among Disability Evaluation and Accession Medical Standards. 2018. RAND National Defense Research Institute. PR-3529-OSD. Prepared for Office of the Under Secretary of Defense, Personnel and Readiness, Health Service Policy and Oversight. Available from:
  • Simmons M, Emily H, Patrick O, Anderson B, Azhar GS, Engel CC. Neurological effects of repeated exposure to military occupational levels of blast: a review of the scientific literature. January 2018.  PR-3438-A. Prepared for the United States Army, Personnel, Training, and Health Program.
  • Ashwood JS, Kataoka SH, Eberhart NK, Bromley E, Zima BT, Baseman L, Marti FA, Kofner A, Tang L, Azhar GS, Chamberlin M, Erickson B, Choi K, Zhang L, Miranda J, Burnam MA. Evaluation of the Mental Health Services Act in Los Angeles County: Implementation and Outcomes for Key Programs. Available from:
  • Olabisi LS, Azhar GS, Abbott, Lempert R. Participatory Modeling of Climate Change Impacts on Public Health in Long Beach, California: Discussion from a Workshop Hosted by the RAND Frederick S. Pardee Center for Longer Range Global Policy and the Future Human Condition. Available from:
  • Maglione MA, Raaen L, Chen C, Azhar GS, Shahidinia N, Shen M, Maskabedian E, Shanman RM, Hempel S. Effects of Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT) for Opioid Use Disorder on Functional Outcomes: A Systematic Review. 2017. RAND National Security Research Division, PR-2773-OSD. Available from:
  • Grant S, Eberhart NK, Kulesza M, Azhar GS, Meija N, Kusuke D, Han E, Biuskill K, Engel CC. Collaborative Care Approaches for Behavioral Health: Targeted Evidence Synthesis Reviews. March 2017, RAND National Security Research Division: Forces and Resources Policy Center, PR-2828-OSD. Prepared for Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Grant S, Eberhart NK, Kulesza M, Engel CC., Colaiaco B, Azhar GS. Integrated-collaborative care approaches for behavioral health: An evidence gap map of indexed scientific literature. June 2015. RAND National Security Research Division: Forces and Resources Policy Center, PR-1898-OSD. Prepared for Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Mavalankar D, Azhar GS, Reddy KS, Singh A, Thakker P, Jaiswal A, Knowloton K, Connolly M, Reddy S. Climate Change and Health Preparedness in India: Protecting Local Communities in Ahmedabad, Gujarat from Extreme Heat: Summary Report from 2011 Kickoff Workshop on Climate Change: Heat and Health, Addressing Vulnerability . Available from:  
  • Mavalankar D, Azhar GS. Report to the Government of Gujarat on Health Facility Mapping study. Phase 1A
  • Draft Ahmedabad Heat Action Plan and Ahmedabad Heat Action Plan, Easy Read version. Available from
  • Azhar GS. Assess the environmental stress on workers at a construction site. AFIH Dissertation 2014.
  • Azhar GS. Effect of directly observed treatment short course chemotherapy for management of tuberculosis. MPH Dissertation 2010, also published as a book. Available from
  • Azhar GS. Pattern of utilization of healthcare services during illness. MD Dissertation 2008, also published as a book.

Factsheets and policy briefs